All models made during WW2. The post-war logo has the “G” and the “N” with a tail that drops below the other letters. Dot on “i” connected to “G”: Dot on “i” free from “G”: Gibson always used nitrocellulose lacquer for all instruments from to present. Some other special order custom colors were available. Prior to , Gibson used mostly spirit varnish. This is very similar to Behlen’s Violin Varnish still available today.
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In this paper we describe a case in which a cash book, dated of the year , was sent to the Forensic Science Division, Document Laboratory, Zurich Canton Police in March The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e. The document lab was asked to determine the date of the entries of the questioned list.
On one hand, we were asked, if the cash book had been kept on account consecutively during the period of one year, and on the other hand, the judges were interested in knowing, if the document could have been written in and back dated to
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If we are able to resolve things straight away and to your satisfaction, we will send you a short letter of confirmation. Where we need to look into the matter in more detail we’ll send you an acknowledgement letter within five working days. This will explain what will happen next and when you can expect to hear from us again. When we’ve completed our investigation, we’ll send you a full written response. We aim to answer all complaints about a payment service within 15 calendar days.
If there are exceptional circumstances beyond our control we may take up to 35 calendar days. If your complaint is not about a payment service we will provide a response within 8 weeks. Although we will normally be able to resolve concerns much earlier, on occasion if we’re unable to respond within 8 weeks, we’ll contact you with an update. If you feel we haven’t resolved things properly, please tell us. We would appreciate one last chance to put things right.
If we’ve misunderstood something, a further review may help us resolve the complaint to your satisfaction. Alternatively you can ask the Financial Ombudsman Service to review the situation.
Forensic Ink Dating
Denser materials like oak flooring will generally show sharper lines of demarcation than polymer e. The absence of a carpet pad often leads to sharper lines. Irregular patterns are common in situations of post flashover conditions, long extinguishing times, or building collapse.
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Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk.
The larger master ink pint or quart size was used to store ink and refill the smaller ink wells. Ink bottles were shaped so they were hard to tip over. Inks come in many different shapes: Cone inks were used from the early s to early s. They often come in a variety of colors as shown in photo below: Umbrella inks were a “fluted-cone stand”, with eight connecting panels to form the sides; they were used from s to s. Pontilled umbrella inks in fancy colors are some of the most expensive inks sought by collectors.
Hexagonal and octagonal ink bottles were used Igloos or Turtles were used
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As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key.
Physicochemical analysis of ink − dating and establishing the sequence of intersecting lines of ink entries Problems of Forensic Sciences , vol. , – excited state, which is a starting point for subsequent.
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Dating Antique Bottles Many people are intrigued to know how old their bottle is. There are three keys to help with dating most bottles: Or the bottle may have a nice even shape, but was spun in the mold to smooth out the seams; a practice common around Can usually tell that lip is crude and was applied by hand. Bottom half from base to shoulder has no seams, then there is a seam near the shoulder that runs completely around the circumference of the bottle.
From this shoulder seam are two side seams that run up the neck and end below the top of the lip.
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Within ten years he had enlarged the factory three times, built a china works, taken on the largest and most gifted group of artists in the Potteries, and developed for Doulton a reputation for craftsmanship and artistry still identified with Royal Doulton today. There follows a selection of the backstamps most commonly used on Doulton Burslem wares, and some further hints on dating.
The information is taken by permission from “The Doulton Burslem Wares” by Desmond Eyles, a compulsory work of reference for any collector of Doulton wares see back page. The reference numbers for the Doulton Burslem marks have been prefixed by the letter ‘B’ to distinguish them from those also numbered 1 and up in the list of Lambeth marks given in The Doulton Lambeth Wares. Several of these were adopted after by Doulton and remained in use for about twenty years.
The following are two typical examples found on the patterns Rouen and Kew.
41 41 Ink Dating
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents.
The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated. The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material. The variation is consistent with the process of hydrolysis becoming less prominent at lower moisture content values, although the results indicate that hydrolytic degradation predominates during natural ink-induced degradation.
In the context of the historic samples used in the study, the presence of ink accelerated the degradation of paper by a constant factor of 1.
Instead, Gibson just ink stamped the model number inside (on hollow body instruments). If the instrument had “f” holes, this number was ink stamped in the bass side “f” hole on the inside back of the instrument. If the instrument was a flat top guitar, this number was ink stamped inside the round soundhole on the inside back of the guitar.
In order to address these challenges, an attempt was made to study the rate of diffusion of inks at different time intervals using hyperspectral imaging. The study was carried out to quantify the amount of ink diffusion using luminosity as a parameter at different intervals of time by preparing a Common Reference Index Value CRIV and to assess whether particular writings were made at the same period of time. This study reveals that there are noticeable differences in the rates of diffusion of the same classes of inks, depending on time interval.
This new approach can determine the relative age of the ink, in a nondestructive manner, from any two writings created at different periods of time with the same class of ink. Many attempts have been made to determine the age of ink in the last 30 years. Different techniques have been used, based on the study of chemical and physical properties of various types of inks. Not all published methods are reliable, however, and some have been heavily criticized Hofer,
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Under an Elsevier user license open access Abstract Attenuated total reflectance ATR Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy associated to linear discriminant analysis LDA was employed to perform classification of blue pen ink according to types and brands, in a nondestructive way. To build a representative data set, blue pens of 3 types, namely ballpoint 5 brands , roller ball 2 brands and gel 3 brands were purchased from local dealers.
Ten different pens, representing the best seller of each brand, were purchased, making a total of pens. Three types of paper were employed:
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Evidence may not be visible to the naked eye Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced? The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Ink Dating and Ink Aging An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years. Comparing Writing Inks Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.
FAQ Can You Determine the Date of Preparation of a Document
To decode Martha Ballard’s diary, you will need to understand how she structured her pages, how she recorded the date, and how she used abbreviations and marginalia. Rollover the headings below to see fragments decoded. Read more about these and other aspects of Martha’s diary her ink, her pen, the layout of the diary, etc. She recorded not only the day of the month, but also the day of the week.
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Massachusetts Areas of Expertise: Document examinations are provided in California Areas of Expertise: Fisher Forensic Document Laboratory, Inc. Clients who utilize the Laboratory’s New York Areas of Expertise:
Handwriting analysis expert, forensic art dating, questioned documents, ink
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Dynamic ink dating if the ageing is still going on (fresh inks) or has already levelled methods rely on quantitative measurements of physical (e.g. off (old inks). motions) or chemical (e.g. reactions) changes of the ink on paper A third ink dating method used in casework is based on as a function of time.
We explore what ink drawing has to offer, and share tips for getting started with this versatile medium. Shares Learning how to draw with ink very different from mastering pencil drawing. The most obvious difference is that you can no longer rely on your eraser — make a mistake in ink, and you’ll have to find another way to rectify it. Don’t let that put you off, though. Ink drawing can be an incredibly creative process.
In this article I’ll explain how to get started with ink drawing, from choosing the right equipment and materials, to mastering different techniques. Use the right grip Grip the pen close to the tip and keep the angle of the pen at about 45 degrees. Strokes generally start close to your body and move outward. Use your arm and shoulder, not just your wrist.
Practise making marks Develop your strokes with ink drawing tools Take time to develop your dexterity in pen handling by doing exercises. Practise creating sweeping strokes, bold lines, crisp dashes, delicate dots, curves and straight lines.